Canal Lives on the JR&KC


Gregory Hargreaves


Manuscripts & Archives

Albert & Shirley Small Special Collections Library. University of Virginia. Charlottesville, VA.

American Canals Society. Easton, PA.

Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Society. Clifton Forge, VA.

James G. Leyburn Special Collections & Archives. Washington & Lee University. Lexington, VA.

Mariners' Museum. Newport News, VA.

Prints & Photographs Division. Library of Congress. Washington, DC.

Valentine Museum. Richmond, VA.

Virginia Board of Public Works Collection. Library of Virginia. Richmond, VA.

Virginia Canals & Navigations Society. Madison Heights, VA.

Virginia Historical Society. Richmond, VA.


Other Primary Sources

Bagby, George W. Canal Reminiscences: Recollections of Travel in the Old Days on the James River and Kanawha Canal. Richmond, VA: West, Johnson & Co., 1879.

-          The Old Virginia Gentleman and Other Sketches. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1911.

Beyer, Edward. Album of Virginia. Richmond, VA: S.N., 1858.

Bisbie, D.T. An Appeal for the Speedy Completion of the Water Line of Virginia, etc. Norfolk, VA: C.H. Wynne, 1857.

Branch, Travis Albert. Maiden’s Adventure, Scene on the Upper James. Richmond, VA: Taylor & Dalton, 1893.

Crozet, Claudius. A Map of the Internal Improvements of Virginia, 1848. Library of Virginia.

De Bow’s Commercial Review of the South & West, vol.8 (March 1850). New Orleans, LA.

Edwards, Richard, ed. Statistical Gazetteer of the State of Virginia: Embracing Important Topographical and Historical Information, etc. Richmond, VA: Richard Edwards, 1855.

Gallatin, Albert. Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the Subject of Public Roads and Canals made in pursuance of a Resolution of the Senate, of March 2, 1807. Washington: R.C. Weightman, 1808.

Hughes, Louis. Thirty Years a Slave, From Bondage to Freedom: The Institution of Slavery as Seen on the Plantation and in the Home of the Planter. Milwaukee: South Side Printing Company, 1897.

James River and Kanawha Company. The Central Water-Line from the Ohio River to the Virginia Capes, Connecting  the Kanawha and James Rivers, Affording the Shortest Outlet of Navigation from the Mississippi Basin to the Atlantic. Richmond, VA: Gary & Clemmitt, 1868.

King, Edward, and James Wells Champney. The Great South: A Record of Journeys in Louisiana, Texas, etc. Hartford, CT: American Publishing Company, 1875.

Ritchie & Dunnavant. Map of the Richmond Coal Field. Richmond, VA: S.H. De Bow, 1858.

“Winter in the South.” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, vol. 15, no. 88 (Sept. 1857). New York, NY.

Wood, George Randolph. A Young Virginia Boatman Navigates the Civil War: The Journals of George Randolph Wood. Will Molineux, ed. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2010.


Secondary Sources

Berry, Thomas S. “The Rise of Flour Milling in Richmond." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 78, no. 4 (Oct. 1970): 387-408.

Blackmon, Douglas A. Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II. New York, NY: Anchor Books, 2008.

Dew, Charles B. Bond of Iron: Master and Slave at Buffalo Forge. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.

Dunaway, Wayland Fuller. History of the James River and Kanawha Company. New York: Columbia University, 1922.

Gibson, Langhorne, Jr. Cabell's Canal: The Story of the James River and Kanawha. Richmond, VA: The Commodore Press, 2000.

Goodrich, Carter, ed. Canals and American Economic Development. New York: Columbia University,    1961.

Hobbs, T. Gibson, Jr. The Canal on the James: An Illustrated Guide to the James River and Kanawha Canal. Lynchburg, VA: Blackwell Press, 2009.

Koons, Kenneth E. and Warren R. Hofstra, eds. After the Backcountry: Rural Life in the Great Valley of Virginia. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2000.

Larson, John Lauritz. “Bind the Republic Together: The National Union and the Struggle for Internal Improvements”. Journal of American History, vol. 74 (Sept. 1987): 363-387.

Majweski, John. A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. New York: Cambridge University, 2000.

McGehee, Minnie Lee and William E. Trout III. Mr. Jefferson’s River: The Rivanna. Palmyra, VA: Fluvanna County Historical Society, 2001.

Shaw, Ronald E. Canals for a Nation: The Canal Era in the United States, 1790-1860. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 1990.

Rountree, Helen C., Wayne E. Clark, and Kent Mountford, eds. John Smith's Chesapeake Voyages, 1607-1609. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2007.

Taylor, George R. The Transportation Revolution, 1815-1860. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1951.

Way, Peter. Common Labour: Workers and the Digging of the North American Canals, 1780-1860. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Wilkes, Gerald P. Mining History of the Richmond Coal Field of Virginia. Charlottesville, VA: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 1988.

Young, Douglas. A Brief History of the Staunton and James River Turnpike. Charlottesville, VA: Virginia Highway & Transportation Research Council, 1975, rev. 2003.


Canal Lives on the JR&KC began as a course project for MSST 603 Museums & Modern Technology at the Univeristy of Delaware. Special thanks to Dr. Mike Zarafonetis for his guidance as course instructor, the Museums Studies Program for technical support, the Hagley Graduate Program in History, and the staffs of the above-mentioned institutions.